General

Meningitis in children

Meningitis in children

Meningitis is an infection of membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.
This word scares people very much, but nowadays the treatment of meningitis is very successful.
For small babies: In case of fever, blood pressure drop, call a doctor or go to hospital.
Children: In case of large amounts of vomiting, fever, headache, painful stiffness of the neck, call a physician immediately. The child is often hospitalized. Puncture from the abdomen is necessary for the complete diagnosis of the disease. This assay distinguishes meningitis from virus or microbe.

Causes of meningitis:

  • Most meningitis is caused by bacterial infections that begin somewhere in the body and spread through the blood to the brain or spinal cord. The most common microbes are meningococci, pneumococci, hemophilia. In microbial meningitis, the symptoms are very severe. Sometimes skin rashes also occur.

Microbes such as staphylococci, colibacillus and listeria cause meningitis, especially in infants.

  • Aseptic meningitis

Chemical irritation or tumors can also be the cause of meningitis.
Viral meningitis is more frequent and milder than bacterial meningitis. They are usually seen in winter and in people under thirty years.
70% of infections occur in children under five years of age. Other types of viral meningitis are rare but quite serious.

Protection:

There is a vaccine for meningitis. It is not active against some meningococci, but it is recommended to do so.
Hemophilus vaccine (HIB vaccine) may be protective in children.
Prophylaxis with antibiotics (rifampin) is recommended for families in contact with individuals with hemophilus influenzae type b and meningococcal infection.

Symptoms:

  • Fire
  • success
  • Neck stiffness
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Changes in mental functions
  • Speech disorder
  • Photo phobia (sensitivity to light)
  • Neck pain
  • Muscle pain
  • Facial paralysis (facial paralysis)
  • hallucinations
  • Sleeping state
  • Acceleration of respiration
  • irritability
  • Low eyelid
  • opisthotonos
  • Chills
  • Agitation
  • Positive babinski reflex
  • Not enought feeding
  • Decreased consciousness

Diagnosis / Diagnosis

Puncture (removal of fluid from the waist)
Cerebrospinal fluid smear
Cerebrospinal fluid culture
Head film
Sinus film
Chest film
Computed tomography of the head
Candy in cerebrospinal fluid
Cell count in cerebrospinal fluid

Treatment

Antibiotics may be given in bacterial meningitis.
Antibiotics are ineffective in viral meningitis.
Secondary symptoms such as shock and convulsion require treatment with other drugs and intravenous fluids.
In cases where the disease is severe, the person may be hospitalized.

Antibiotics usually cure the disease completely. It is important to know that the younger the child, the more dangerous the disease is. Meningitis from meningococcal microbes spread in an epidemic. In such times, the cleaning rules should be very careful.

Once the child is completely well, he or she can go back to school or daycare. Antibiotic treatment is given to everyone involved in the child. Schools should be disinfected.

Prognosis / Disease course

Early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis is required to prevent permanent neurological damage.
Viral meningitis is usually not serious and the symptoms disappear within two weeks without permanent complications.


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