Psychology

Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder is a psychiatric disorder with symptoms of hyperactivity, attention problems, and inability to postpone requests (impulsivity). In order to be considered as Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in a child, a teenager or an adult, these symptoms should be present since the age of seven and should be seen at a much more severe level than a normal person. In other words, signs of excessive mobility, distraction and inability to postpone desires should be so large that they affect one's daily life. For example, it is normal for a 5-year-old to be more active and distracted more quickly than adults. However, if this mobility and distraction are more than their peers and prevent them from playing games and establishing healthy relationships with their peers, Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder can be mentioned. When parents apply to child psychiatrists, their children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder and especially those with signs of excessive mobility tırman climb to the flat wall ”, imkansız impossible to restrain it”, maz unruly ”,“ when we go to stay ev the host will almost go away ın in words. Attention problems of children with attention problems are generally not noticed or ignored until school years.

Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder are divided into three groups:

A. Those with both attention and impulsivity problems;
B. Just watch out for those with problems;
C. Only those with hyperactivity-impulsivity.

Extreme Mobility: Children are more lively and active than adults. However, when this mobility is significantly higher compared to the child's own peers, excessive mobility is mentioned. In addition, this mobility is defined as excessive mobility when problems are created for children, families or teachers in daily functions such as play, kindergarten and school.

Attention Issues: Symptoms such as difficulty in concentrating attention, distractions with external stimuli, forgetfulness, frequent loss of belongings and toys and irregularity indicate that there are attention problems.

Impulsiveness: Hurry, inability to postpone requests, respond very quickly to questions, interrupt others, and have difficulty waiting for their turn suggest that there are impulsivity problems.

Symptoms Associated with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder;
a) Clutter, disorder
b) Thoughtfulness, dreaming
c) Inconsistency
D) Coordination difficulties, clumsiness
to) Memory problems
f) Sleep problems
g) Problems in social relations
h) Offensive behavior
I) Decreased self-esteem and self-esteem

Not all children may have all of these symptoms. These symptoms do not necessarily have to be diagnosed, but the presence of these symptoms supports the diagnosis. One of the most important issues related to the diagnosis of “Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder, is where these symptoms occur. In order to be able to say “Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder ide in one person, these symptoms should be present in at least two areas. The prevalence of “Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder ında varies among girls and boys. The probability of occurrence in boys is 4-8 times higher than in girls. In addition, it is known that boys have more type symptoms that show signs of hyperactivity, destructive behavior and impulsivity, while girls have more type of carelessness symptoms. Because these symptoms are often ignored or passed away as laziness, girls with attention deficit are less likely to apply to child psychiatrists than boys.

Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder is a heterogeneous disorder of unknown cause. Cases such as fragile-X, fetal alcohol syndrome, very low birth weight and, more rarely, thyroid disorders of genetic origin show signs of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder. However, such cases constitute a very small proportion of all Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder children. Research on the subject suggests some possible reasons:

a. Genetic causes
b. Brain damage
c. neurotransmitters
D. Food-additives and toxic substances
to. Psychosocial factors

Genetic relationship and data were obtained for the first time from studies conducted with the relatives of these children. First-degree relatives of children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder are 4-5 times more frequent. Especially family studies with first and second degree relatives reveal that antisocial personality disorder, hysteria, alcoholism and substance use are more frequent in families of hyperactive children.

Although “Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder m is not widely known by the society in our country, it is known for a long time in the world. This disorder was first described in 1902 by a British doctor named George Stil. In those years, it was believed that this disorder was the problem of “mischief” only due to the wrong attitudes in the upbringing of children and could only be solved by the family being too hard on the child. However, today's very hard attitudes of "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder" symptoms may increase rather than decrease, especially the problem of beating has turned into an inevitable. Methylphenidate (Ritalin) was found to be useful in the treatment of “Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder larda in the 1950s, and there was a great increase in interest in“ Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder ”. In the 1960s, biological factors such as heredity (genetic transmission) played an important role in the development of the disease. Impaired parental attitudes, personality characteristics of the child and environmental factors were not found to be the main features of the disease. Research conducted in the 1980s and 1990s revealed that “Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder bir is not a disease that can only be seen in childhood and resolves spontaneously. It is known that çocuklar Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder bil can be seen in adolescents and adults as well as children, and it is known that improvement can be achieved with similar treatment methods used in children.

Prepared by: Erdi Kanbaş-Special Education Specialist / [email protected]

REFERENCES

- Teacher Handbook for Teaching Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity / Excessive Mobility Disorder, General Directorate of Special Education and Guidance and Counseling Services, Ankara, 2005.
- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. GATA Child Mental Health and Diseases Department Lecture Notes, www.gata.edu.tr
- Ercan Sabri E., Aydin Cahide, Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder, Gendaş Publications, Istanbul, 1999.
- Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder, DEHA-DER, www.hiperaktif.org


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