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The relaxation of the mothers in water has become a method which is sometimes applied in modern obstetric clinics in the last 30 years upon the detection of decreased pain feeling.
There is controversy about the safety of water delivery. The prospects of the mother and fetus being infected and the danger of choking the baby are the focus of these discussions. A large-scale study was conducted in 2009. As a result, less epidural anesthesia was required in the first period of pregnancy and the side effects of epidural were decreased. In the last stage of labor, the lifting power of the water gives physical power to the expectant mother. The hydrostatic force reduces the mother's weight and provides freedom of movement. With the heat and lifting power of the water, blood flow to the uterus increases and more effective uterine contraction, better oxygenation is provided. Water reduces stress and prevents anxiety and fear in the mother. It was found that vaginal tears were less in water and the need for episiotomy was decreased.
In addition to the mentioned benefits of water birth, some very important risks are mentioned. These risks are especially important for the newborn. The risk of asphyxia, pulmonary edema, hyponatremia and seizures, brain damage due to hypoxia, infections, especially pseudomonas infection, may be the dangers that await the baby. An article published in the British Journal of Medicine in 1999 published the results of 4029 cases of water birth. This publication emphasizes that there is no difference in the results of birth on land and in water. In the UK, however, water delivery is only permitted for uncomplicated pregnancies. As a result of limited studies conducted in the United States, it was concluded that the birth of water relieved the mother candidate, many successful births were made, but in many cases the newborn experienced problems, it should not be a popular birth type. However, there are not enough scientific, evidence-based, randomized controlled studies to make a final judgment on this issue.
If the mother has a herpes infection, water is not given birth. This method cannot be used if the mother has high blood pressure and preeclampsia in multiple pregnancies, in maternal deliveries other than fetal onset, malpresentations such as foot arrival, lateral incidence, preterm birth, inutero baby meconium.
In water, special pools are used for birth. Water temperature, cleaning is extremely important. Water temperature should be around 37 degrees. If water is contaminated, it should be replaced intermittently. Birth must be in hospital environment. The heart rate of the fetus should be monitored intermittently during labor. The team should be ready for immediate evaluation of the newborn.